Hard materials and in
particular transition metal carbides, borides, nitrides and their composites
are indispensable for a variety of industrial cutting, forming, mining, oil-well
drilling, wear and erosion applications that have a direct impact on the
growing need to increase human productivity, decrease energy and materials
waste and increase the availability of energy resources. Some key materials
(e.g. W and Co) that are widely used at present in hard metals are strategic
in nature and therefore alternatives have to be found. This development
cannot proceed without basic research and appropriate guidelines.
Basic knowledge of how the overall performance of hard material composite is
influenced by the fundamental physical, chemical and mechanical properties of
its constituents and structure property relationships of general validity
have been slow to emerge. Concepts regarding the structure and properties of
phase boundaries, grain boundaries and other interfaces; plastic flow and
work hardening in geometrically constrained regions and newer analytical
tools and techniques such as Auger spectroscopy, neutron diffraction,
electron energy-loss spectroscopy and finite-element methods have found only
limited application in the area of hard material technology. Hard material
technology can be significantly enhanced through increased and enlightened
application of these concepts and techniques.
conference on hard materials was a natural outgrowth of the series of seven
Hard Materials Workshops sponsored by the Division of Materials Research of
the National Science Foundation. At the last of these, in 1979 at the
University of Illinois, it was agreed to expand the attendance to include
overseas colleagues and to include many more papers. This decision reflected
the general belief that these workshops had fulfilled their purpose of
interesting academic investigators in the area of hard materials research and
of putting industrial research groups in touch with university counterparts.
Based on the efforts of a handful of people (both from academia and
industry), a grant from the National Science Foundation, and seed money from
Reed Rock Bit and GTE Precision Materials an organizing committee started the
process of planning the “First International Conference on the Science of
Hard Materials”. The conference was a roaring success and the attendees
unanimously requested a permanent continuance of such meetings. The rest as
they say is history.
Conferences have been held every three or four years so as to allow
sufficient time to maintain the presentation and discussion of a high level
of new and innovative research and development. This has been and will
continue to be the trademark of these conferences. The first seven converences were held at:
ICSHM 1 Moran, Wyoming,
USA; August, 1981
ICSHM 2 Rhodes, Greece; September, 1984.
ICSHM 3 Nassau, Bahamas; November, 1987
ICSHM 4 Madeira, Portugal; November, 1991
ICSHM 5 Maui, Hawaii, USA; February, 1995
ICSHM 6 Lanzarote, Spain; March, 1998
ICSHM 7 Ixtapa, Mexico; March, 2001
ICSHM 8 San Juan, Puerto Rico; November, 2004
ICSHM 9 Montego Bay, Jamaica; March 2008
ICSHM 10 Cancún, Mexico; March 2014
Publications in Journals:
Science and Engineering, A105/106 (1988), Elsevier Sequoia, Ed. V. K. Sarin.
4 Journal of
Hard Materials, Vol. 2, Nos 1-4 (1991) and Vol.3,
Nos. 1-4 (1992), Carfax Publishing Co., Ed. C.A.
Brooks and R. Warren.
Science and Engineering, A 209, Nos 1-2 (1996),
Elsevier Science, Ed. V. K. Sarin.
6 Int. Journal
of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials, Vol. 17, Nos
1-3 (1999), Elsevier, Ed. H. G. Sockel, H. E. Hintermann, and V. K. Sarin.
7 Int. Journal
of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials, Vol. 19, Nos
4-6 (2001), Elsevier, Ed. L. Llanes, I. C. Grigorescu, and V. K. Sarin.
8 Int. Journal
of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials, Vol. 23, Nos
4-6 (2005), Elsevier, Ed. L. Llanes, I. C. Grigorescu, and V. K. Sarin.
8 Int. Journal
of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials, Vol. 24, Nos
1-2 (2006), Elsevier, Ed. L. Llanes, D. Mari, and
V. K. Sarin.
9 Int. Journal
of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials, Vol. 27, Nos
1-2 (2009), Elsevier, Ed. L. Llanes, D. Mari, and
V. K. Sarin.
10 Int. Journal
of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials, Vol. 49, Nos
1 (2015), Elsevier, Ed. L. Llanes, D. Mari, and
V. K. Sarin.